I haven't seen this before, so I figured I would share. This is a simple cartoon like effect. This is similar to the pseudo cell shading tutorial by Affinity, but that's because they used the edge detect tool too. So for what it's worth here we go.
First copy your background layer, CMD-J
Go to Filter, Detect, Detect Edges. Set the blend mode to subtract.
Add the adjustment layer, posterize. Adjust the levels for taste. My example uses 4.
That's it. Now you have a basic cartoon stylized picture. You can use all sorts of additional methods from here. But this seems a good starting point. Hope you find something useful in this. Cheers.