Well yes and no. The one thing you’ve got on your side is that you know what you wanted to do from the outset of this project. Much of the time photos are taken and then, as an afterthought it is sent to a software graphic editor to improve or get more from the photo. And yes, mostly this can/may be achievable.
As you say, you wish to extricate the figure from its surrounding impedimenta - yes?. There are several things working against you. As has been said the lighting is the key and primary factor here, however there is another which hasn’t been mention - the angle the shot was taken at. As you wished for the dancing figure to be isolated, I would have taken the initial “takes” on-axis or straight-on. The angle here is creating so many more shadow overlaps that this is unfortunately creating many more challenges that I’d have a problem to solve.
But there is a greater and bigger opportunity you could easily experiment with - a blue screen background. Choosing an alternative to the white card does several things. 1: It will help to prevent any reflected colour from the target, which your white card won’t. 2: Blue would be a much better “key” for Keying-out than the White card or a green card. A green screen background is far too near to the object’s brassy-greenish hue.
This is a great project. And as I said, you know what you are wanting. That’s definitely a bonus. The other thing is that you can control the environment. With a little application you should win!
So, to recap, for me it’s, lighting, shot angle and an easier, key-able background.